5.9 million children under age five died in 2015.
That means, 16,000 children under age five died everyday.

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It has been a long way to decrease the under five mortality rate( u5mr). In 1960, the average world u5mr is 182.7 per thousand births, while the rate for 2015 is 42.5 per thousand births. The average u5mr for the world has fallen 76.7%. And regions are quite different from each other. Sub-suharan Africa is much higher than other areas around the world.

Part countries are showing quite a different trends from other countries. They didn't just go down all the way. Political instability and natural disasters like earthquake and tsunami are main reasons which cause such unsettles.

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Year 2010. Haiti Earthquake. Death toll: 100,000 - 316,000.


Year 2008. Cyclone Bargis. 84,500 people were killed and 53,800 went missing.


Year 1992. The Tajik Civil War( lasting 6years).


Year 1994. North Korean famine(lasting four years). Children, especially those under two years old, were the most affected by the famine and poverty of the period.


Year 2004. Indian Ocean earth quake and tsunami. 227,898 people died.


Year 1988. Spitak earthquake.


Year 1998. Hurricane Mitch.


Year 1998. Hurricane Mitch.


Year 2009.  8.1 Mw submarine earthquake and tsunami.


Year 1999. Vargas tragedy. Death toll: 10,000 - 30,000.

The under five mortality rate decreasing progress is accelerating, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. From 2000 to 2015, the decrease rate on global level is 3.8%, while the Sub-Saharan Africa is 4.1%. For Sub-Saharan Africa, the difference range is very big. It almost covers all the range of the whole world.
The interactive scatter plot shows six causing elements.To some degree, they stand for different countries' situations on economics, health system and women situation.

Total adult literacy rate is a big causing element on children mortality. Sub-Saharan Arfica has the highest mortality rate, as well as the lowest adult literacy rate.

Among these elements, GNI per capita has the strongest relationship with children mortality. Clearly, the higher people's income is, the lower the mortality is.

The relation between breastfeeding before age 2 and the children mortality rate is pretty weak.

There is a moderate negative relation between the use of imporoved drinking water sources and the mortality rate. Among all the countries with available data, they have improved water source more than 40%. Still, the countries with lower mortality rate has the hignest improved drinking water.

There is a moderate negative correlation between the use of improved sanitation facilities and the U5MR. When the U5MR is between 0 and 20 per thousand births, the percentage of the facilities is on the top position, between 90% and 100%. When the santitation facilities improvement is lower than 90%, the U5MR is increasing with it dispersively.

Croatia is a outlier at the part. The skilled attenant at brith is quite low, only 59%, but the u5mr is also extremely low.

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Author: Jiaxin Liu         Instructor: Lynn Cherny         Source: UNICEF & World Bank